Last edited by Nazil
Thursday, May 7, 2020 | History

2 edition of Energy balance of the earth"s surface in Finland. found in the catalog.

Energy balance of the earth"s surface in Finland.

Erkki Laitinen

Energy balance of the earth"s surface in Finland.

by Erkki Laitinen

  • 117 Want to read
  • 4 Currently reading

Published by Finnish Meteorological Institute in Helsinki .
Written in English

    Places:
  • Finland.
    • Subjects:
    • Energy budget (Geophysics) -- Finland.,
    • Geophysics -- Finland.

    • Edition Notes

      Bibliography: p. 16.

      SeriesFinnish Meteorological Institute. Contributions, no. 76
      Classifications
      LC ClassificationsQC989.F3 I45 no. 76, QC809.E6 I45 no. 76
      The Physical Object
      Pagination16 p.
      Number of Pages16
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL4861104M
      LC Control Number75878583

      Earth Surface Processes considers the physical and chemical fluxes across the Earth's surface, the processes that determine these fluxes, and the resulting landscapes. The Earth's surface acts as a diffusive boundary that separates the atmosphere from the lithosphere, resulting in a global topography determined by the interaction of tectonic and climatic processes. Insolation or Incoming Solar Radiation. As we all know, the sun is the primary source of energy for the earth. The sun radiates its energy in all directions into space in short wavelengths, which is known as solar radiation.; The earth’s surface receives only a part of this radiated energy (2 units out of 1,00,00,00, units of energy radiated by the sun).

      There’s a Balance! • Some solar radiation is reflected/absorbed by atmosphere before it reaches Earth. • Solar radiation (short wavelength) warms the earth. Earth radiates some of that energy (long wavelength) back towards space. • Incoming energy must equal outgoing energy to keep things in balance. Image source: The energy balance of planet earth The temperature of the earth’s surface has been remarkably constant over geologic time. Even the dramatic cooling during the ice age represented a change of only 3° C in the global average surface temperature, occurring over thousands of years. Seasonal changes in temperature, although large in aFile Size: 5MB.

      However, just considering surface temperatures does not tell the whole story – a new analysis using satellite & ocean observations confirms that the Earth is still gaining energy overall. Understanding how Earth is currently heating up helps us to gauge how much the planet is going to warm in the future. The bottom line is that Allan et al. For the energy budget at Earth's surface to balance, processes on the surface must transfer and transform the 47 percent of incoming solar energy that the ocean and land surfaces absorbed back into the atmosphere and eventually space.


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Energy balance of the earth"s surface in Finland by Erkki Laitinen Download PDF EPUB FB2

Figure 1 shows annual mean values of the main components of the Earth's energy balance. Of the W m −2 of solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere, W m −2 meets clouds that transmit 88 W m −2 to the Earth's surface and 77 W m −2 is reflected into space.

One hundred and thirty-seven watts per square meter impinge on clear atmosphere and W m. The separate energy balance components were examined and the mean surface energy balance closure was found to be and for wet and dry seasons, respectively. The earth-atmosphere energy balance is achieved as the energy received from the Sun balances the energy lost by the Earth back into space.

In this way, the Earth maintains a stable average temperature and therefore a stable climate. Using units of energy from the sun as a baseline the energy balance is as follows. The energy balance of a surface layer of finite depth and unit horizontal area can be written as, dQ dt = Rn − G−H − λE (1) • Q is the total heat energy stored in the surface layer.

• Rn is the net surface irradiance (commonly referred to as the net radiation). It represents the gain of energy by the surface from Size: KB. The energy balance at Earth's land surface requires that the energy gained from net radiation be balanced by the fluxes of sensible and latent heat to the atmosphere and the storage of heat in soil.

These energy fluxes are a primary determinant of surface : Gordon Bonan. The Earth energy balance exercise is based primarily on readings from Harte, J.,Consider a Spherical Cow, Sausalito, CA: University Science Books, p.

In his book, Harte leads the reader through a derivation of Earth's surface temperature given the assumption that the planet acts as a perfect black body, reflecting and re-radiating. In the framework of the global energy balance, the radiative energy exchanges between Sun, Earth and space are now accurately quantified from new satellite missions.

Much less is known about the magnitude of the energy flows within the climate system and at the Earth surface, which cannot be directly measured by satellites.

In addition to satellite observations, Cited by: In this exercise students learn how to do this by modeling the energy balance at Earth's surface. The exercise begins by assuming that the Earth is a perfect black body lacking an atmosphere, then moves on to incorporate the fact that Earth reflects much of the solar radiation incident upon it, and later incorporates the fact that Earth has an.

This is achieved through Earth’s energy balance. Figure A depicts how the energy from the sun is absorbed, reflected, and emitted by the earth.

Figure A: Earth's Energy Balance. % of the energy entering earth’s atmosphere comes from the sun. ~50% of the incoming energy is absorbed by the earth’s surface i.e.

the land and oceans. When electromagnetic energy is incident on any given earth surface feature, three fundamental energy interactions with the feature are possible. This is illustrated in Figure 2 for an element of the volume of a water body.

Various fractions of the energy incident on the element are reflected, absorbed, and or transmitted. Applying the principle File Size: KB. Chapter 7: Energy Balance of the Earth Part I. The Basic Concept of Climate: Radiative Energy Balance The temperature of the earth’s surface has been remarkably constant over geologic time.

Even the dramatic cooling during the ice age represented a change of only 3° C in the global average surface temperature, occurring over thousands of years. The balance of energy at the earth's surface is inextricably linked to the overlying atmospheric boundary layer.

In this lecture, we consider the energy budget of different kinds of surfaces. Consider first an ideal surface, which is a very thin interface between the air and an underlying solid or liquid medium that is opaque to Size: KB. As the Energy Balance Expert, Toon Roijers can feel the energy of homes, superyachts, private planes and workspaces and determine whether life energy (chi) can flow freely or is disrupted/blocked.

The causes of disruptions differ. For example, the energy of previous occupants or the location of a property. Refers to flows of energy reaching the earth, which includes land and ocean surfaces in the atmosphere, and the flows of energy leaving it.

Controls the seasonal and daily changes in the earths surface temperature. Differences in energy flow rates drive currents of air and water. Heat balance at the surface As discussed in sectionthe incoming solar radiation on a horizontal surface at the top of the atmosphere is about Wm-2, with roughly 30% of this being reflected back into analysis of the Earth's global heat balance (Fig.

) shows that more that 70% of the reflection takes place in the atmosphere, mainly because of the. Heat Balance of the Earth the relation between the gain and loss of radiant and thermal energy at the earth’s surface, in the atmosphere, and in the earth-atmosphere system.

Solar radiation is the principal source of energy for the overwhelming majority of the physical, chemical, and biological processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and upper. The energy absorbed at the surface is radiated by the Earth as terrestrial longwave radiation (L↑).

The amount of energy emitted is primarily dependent on the temperature of the surface. The hotter the surface the more radiant energy it will emit.

Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun, and the energy the Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered Earth’s so-called heat engine.

This system is made up of Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and. Global energy balance. There are many reasons why we have a redistribution of energy.

There is a surplus of energy at the tropics and a deficit in polar areas. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) database currently stores energy flux monthly means that have been measured at stations at the earth's surface.

The station histories (i.e., records of known changes in instrumentation, data evaluation procedures, and data publication standards) are also stored in the GEBA by:. This reflected energy is a fundamental component of the Earth's energy balance and the processes that govern its magnitude, distribution and variability shape Earth.Chapter 3: Energy Balance and Temperature Planet Energy Balance Energy emitted by Earth = Energy absorbed by Earth σT e 4 x (4π R2 Earth) = S π R2 Earth x (1-A) σT e 4 = S/4 * (1-A) Convection Balance the Energy btw Surface and Atmosphere.

ESS55 Prof. Jin-Yi Yu.The average vertical energy balance of the actual atmosphere. All energies are represented as a percentage of the incoming solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere ( W m –2 = units). Solar irradiance is on the left (yellow arrows), infrared radiation is in the middle (red arrows), and convection (5 units) and evaporation (24 units) are on the right (blue arrows).